Bangladesh and Myanmar became the first states to submit a maritime boundary disputeto the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS or the Tribunal) in December 2009. Previously, such disputes had been adjudicated by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or in front of international arbitral bodies. In March 2012, the ITLOS issued its judgment. This Note will examine the historical context of the dispute and analyze the states’ decision to go before the ITLOS. It will also discuss the formation of the Tribunal in the context of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Turning to a broader context, the Note will conclude by assessing the impact of the recently decided dispute on future developments of the law of the sea and on the future of the ITLOS itself.